Mid-19th century. Hardwood, 18” length, tapering through its length with canted swelled head. The face cut with the owner’s clan mark. The sides of the head swelled to match the palm of the hand. Used both as a bludgeon as necessary and a palmatoria, which was used to punish by beating the opened palms of the hands. The result was great pain without inflicting a wound. The palmatoria was used extensively in the slave trade as well as in domestic and agricultural employment of slaves.