1st-4th century AD. Iron, 15 1/2" length with lapped seam conical socket pierced for a securing pin. Tapered squared section shank and slender medially ridged point. Excavated and professionally conserved. The pilum was made with a hardened point on a softer shaft and was capable of penetrating any armor of the period. The primary function was to impale the wood shields of the enemy shield wall, causing breaches which were then exploited. Alternatively, they were carried into the battle as the primary weapon.