17th-early 18th century. Made for fighting on horseback. 28 3/4" length with tapered wood haft. Iron head with double spikes to the back and back canted crescent form bit. The full return of the edge represents the Ottoman crescent. One side with Arabic inscription, probably the owner’s name. Iron fore mount and plain iron butt cap. The double spikes are spaced to engage chain mail and the length allow for a reach to the middle of the back of a mounted opponent to impale and unhorse him. The axe is equally effective for head and body blows to a mounted or unmounted adversary and was used for battle with Eastern forces, rather than European.