Carolingian, the period of Charlemagne and after. The emergence from the Dark Ages is embodied in the rise to power of the Frankish King, Charlemagne in 768 (founder of the Holy Roman Empire after 800) followed by conquering southern Europe from France to Italy and much of Northern Europe. The condition for peace was the acceptance of Christianity, under the penalty of death. The conversion was effective and Northern Europeans, primarily Saxons, wore small crosses to affirm their Christianity. This is an original Northern European "profession of faith" crosses 1000-1300 years old, just under1” height with the cross beam centered. Globular beam terminals and raised edge square enclosing a saltire at the center, front and back. Professionally refurbished with the 24karat gold surface restored. On a gilt Sterling silver 18” neck chain, jewelry gift boxed with certificate of authenticity.