19th century. Domed iron skull decorated overall with mystics or deities among foliage. The base with continuous calligraphy band. Pivoting nasal bar, twin plume holders and integral heavy top spike. The nasal bar base set with a fine medallion with central cut stone or glass with stars, crescent and other Islamic symbols, inlaid with gold. Six peak butted link mail fall. The interior with a liner showing substantial use, which was originally a skull cap embroidered with folk subjects and PORTUGAL. The embroidery fresh as protected by the helmet. Thus, the origin is likely to be Goa off the southwest Indian coast which was colonized by the Portuguese. The medallion is of fine quality and perhaps mounts a gem stone. Examples from this group appear on the market from time to time but, to our knowledge, have never been identified. This example brings two features previously not encountered. The liner, is nearly as new inside, protected by its interface with the helmet interior its inside, and by extension the helmet, indicates considerable use and human contact. The medallion, identifies it as Muslim and related to a person of importance by its quality. As throughout the Islamic world, hereditary rulers maintained considerable autonomy in daily and cultural matters, particularly ceremonial and those involving the class system.