Second half of the 19th century. Hardwood, 20 3/4” length, Cylindrical haft with integral inverted conical head carved in basket weave panels. Used both as a bludgeon as necessary and a palmatoria, which was used to punish by beating the opened palms of the hands or soles of the feet, both of which are rich with nerves. The result was great pain without inflicting a wound. The palmatoria was used extensively in the slave trade as well as in domestic and agricultural employment of slaves. The butt with age crack. Very well used with some wear and light surface encrustation providing wonderful age character.