Polish/Ukrainian/Romanian, 19th century. 37” length. Backswept plated bit decorated with concentric circle patterns and transverse hatching. Carried by the mountain men of the Carpathians as a combination weapon and mountaineer’s staff. Originally with an iron base spike, now removed as was the custom when a man grew old and no longer wandered the mountains but instead stayed largely indoors where the spikes would damage wood floors. The haft with its painted finish intact. In its prime, the axe, based on the Polish czekan would have served as a weapon against wolves and, if necessary, men.