28 ½” overall. Pierced axe blade with curved back spike opposite. Short diamond section fore spike. Line-bordered socket with scroll engraving. This axe relates to a group of axes and hammers with heads of elongated proportions, distinguished by their long back spikes and which evolved in Italy in the last quarter of the 16th century. An oriental influence is obvious, but whether it came directly from Ottoman examples or the Eastern European examples influenced by them is debated. The use of battle axes and hammers diminished rapidly after this period as a result of the general introduction of firearms to troops.