A well known and documented type produced in the New World for Spanish troops who were largely mercenaries. As well, they were used by pirates who preyed on Spanish treasure ships. See Arms and Armor in Colonial America, pl.78 and Spanish Military Weapons in Colonial America pl.125 & 126. This example is crudely forged as are all in the group, with deep cup connected to the cross guard with side arms and rounded knuckle bow. The mushroom form pommel caps a horn grip. The 31 7/8" broad fullered blade is well pointed and designed for thrusting as well as slashing and particularly well suited for shipboard fighting. Stable brown surface rust throughout with some pitting and forging flaws. The grip with some age delamination. While many Spanish swords are valued as the type which served in America, only the group from which this one comes, is known to have been produced and used in North America only. The second example cited above was recovered in Mexico and these are known to have been used from Florida to California and throughout the Spanish Southwest as well as the Caribbean islands which were hosts to pirates.