Thirty Years War (1618-48) and likely reused in the English Civil Wars as was much of the ordnance of the previous war. Forged iron of exceptionally heavy construction and 10 pounds 14.0-ounce weight. Crested deeply bowled skull and opposing rolled edge elegant peaked brims. The brims showing interesting tool marks in and out used to stretch the hot metal to shape. The skull with considerable blackened finish remaining. Original liner band secured with a row of rivets at the base of the skull. The cheekpieces removed, probably when adapted for the English Civil War. Sappers were specialized infantry who, in addition to fighting alongside their comrades, were adept at excavating sappes, trenches that protected the troops, while closing the distance to the enemy. Their armor was heavier than that of ordinary troops, to provide additional protection against the cannon fire which they faced. The Thirty Years War was a war of siege and fortifications, whereas the English Civil Wars were largely open field conflicts that account for the lightening of the helmet by removal of the cheekpieces. Ex: Howard Knapp Collection.