19th century made in Africa for the transport of slaves to market. Crudely forged of seven pieces: two flat band cuffs with thick folded eyes, each with a pair of interlocking rings joined by a central ring. The rings are all of drawn stock probably very heavy wire, cut with heavy mechanical shears. One of the rings has opposing raised lines, suggesting an early two piece die through which they were drawn to dimension. Restraints such as this were used in the slave trains going to market as well the continued transport by caravan in the East and by ship, the west. In the latter, slaves were restrained beneath the decks of the ships which were often disguised as merchantmen. Restraints were maintained in the market and many made in Africa arrived in the Americas with their captives. Rare.