The emergence from the Dark Ages is embodied in the rise to power of the Frankish King, Charlemagne in 768 (founder of the Holy Roman Empire after 800) followed by conquering southern Europe from France to Italy and much of Northern Europe. The condition for peace was acceptance of Christianity, under penalty of death. Conversion was effective and Northern Europeans, primarily Saxons, wore small cross to affirm their Christianity. This example is slightly under 1” height with centered cross beam and a block at the junction with saltire to the front. Professionally refurbished with gold overlay restored.