Hudson River Valley find. See Collector’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Revolutionary War, Neumann, p.156 #7. 5 1/4” length, with Calkins both ends and six nail holes in a groove. Oxen have cloven hoofs and require two half shoes like this. Oxen were used by American forces to transport supplies and cannon. Generally paired, teams of five or more pair were commonly used for heavy hauling. For city folks: Oxen are steers, grow to maturity. Thus there are no female or baby oxen.