17th century, the period of military conquest under Shah Jahan and Arungzeb. Hide, 18” diameter of plain domed form with four iron bosses, one with a distinct sword impact. The reverse with original leather hand grips and padded leather knuckle cushion. The last are noted for having gold coins sewn in to pay a ransom if the owner is captured. Shows great age, slightly warped, the surface flaked and a little edge damage. A rare survivor of the Mogul period stored in an arsenal until sold in the 1980s.