North European/German, 11th-14th centuries, and later. Primarily used before the effective use of cannon. A forged iron spike with long opposing barbs which was driven into the roots of trees surrounding castles and fortresses, many of which, particularly along the Danube, were perched on wooded cliffs. Assaults were on foot, setting ladder and mining the foundations of walls to set fires. The foot irons were concealed just under the soil or covered with leaves. When stepped on, they produced a wound which often resulted in a fatal infection in field conditions. This example is just over 3” long and finely forged. Based on its condition, it was arsenal kept and not excavated.