Carolingian, the period of Charlemagne. The emergence from the Dark Ages is embodied in the rise to power of the Frankish King, Charlemagne in 768 (founder of the Holy Roman Empire after 800) followed by conquering southern Europe from France to Italy and much of Northern Europe. The condition for peace was the acceptance of Christianity, under the penalty of death. Conversion was effective and Northern Europeans, primarily Saxons, wore small crosses to affirm their Christianity. This is an original Northern European "profession of faith" that crosses 1000-1300 years old, over 1" in height including the loop. Crossbeam is centered with large bulbous expanded terminals with nub projections to both beams. Especially robust example for these which are usually quite small. Professionally refurbished with the 24karat gold surface restored. On a gilt neck chain, jewelry gift boxed with certificate of authenticity.