18th-early 19th century, the period of City State wars supported by British, French and Portuguese colonialism. Hide, 18 ¼” diameter, domed with upturned edge. Four fine brass bosses with open work edges, each with an oval portrait face in high relief, very similar to the Nuremburg iron shields of the 16th century preserved at Wawel Castle, Krakow, though no other connection has been established. Domed form with upturned edge. The surface with brown pigment throughout. Surface wear and some distortion as always experienced with hide shields.