2 3/8" height. This mace represents the earliest of flanged maces which were produced in response to the increased use of solid plate with mail armor. A blow with a ball head mace which made effective contact with mail was deflected by the solid plate surface. The addition of flanges, substantial enough to dent the armor renewed the effectiveness of the blow. See Arms & Armour of the Crusading Era, Nicolle, fig.250 for a very similar example from Novgorod, northern Russia. This example is skillfully forged and would have been mounted on a long wood haft for use on horse back. It dates to the period of independent principalities including Chernigov, Halych-Volnynia and Wallachia/Bessarabia between which war frequently broke out notably as the result of fortification by new alliances, sometimes against the Mongols. Mongol invasions eventually forced the smaller principalities into alliances with Poland and Lithuania.