C.1840-70. From a group about which there are conflicting attributions. Finely crafted iron head with relatively thin flesh cutting bit. The socket and bolster with inlaid engraved copper bands. The bit finely pierced with a matrix of key slotted circles and a clover leaf above. Additional concentric circle decoration. Bit and socket plated before the application of the inlay. 25 1/4” overall. Cylindrical ebonized wood haft cut in a distinctive shallow chip technique in bands and panels. That work, which is often found on these, is very specific to Ukraine. My grandmother, born in 1887, was of Cossack stock and had picture frames decorated in identical fashion and technique. We believe these to be Cossack, early second half of the 19th century when, under alliance with the Czar, Cossacks preserved their culture, tradition and costume. Until 1861, the serf system was in effect and Lords carried long hafted hammers and axes which served as walking sticks as well as weapons, which they used to discipline and sometimes kill serfs. In its prime, the axe, based on the Polish czekan would have served as a weapon against wolves, and if necessary, men.