American adaptation of the European model which responded to the conditions at hand by eliminating the axe blade, as armor was not a significant factor, and replacing it with a second back fluke to more easily access a mounted adversary from the ground. That innovation may have been partially influenced by the prospect of Indian raids. The fundamental function to which this weapon is eminently suited, is to compensate for the advantage of position (height) and maneuverability which a mounted fighter has over an infantryman. 85 3/4 total length. Forged iron head shows few small areas of forged finish and with tool marks to most of the portion above the socket. Perhaps painted or pitch covered originally to prevent rusting. Haft shows dull to glossy finish, sound with minor blemishes only.