Extremely rare relic of slavery. Used to beat the palms of the hands which are particularly sensitive. That fact led to the punishing of school children in this country, by smacking their opened palms with wood rulers. This example 25 1/4" long, carved of hard wood with expanded striking surface decorated with hatched panels which actually added to the pain. Banded expanded butt. Used both in Africa and South America, this instrument was probably made in Africa and brought with the slaves. Untouched with surface encrustation and few small nicks. Slavery in Brazil continued until 1888 and accounted for over 1/3 of all transatlantic slavery in the 19th century. Only example we have ever encountered.