Crusades period, C.11th-13th century. Forged iron, 4 3/8" height. Characteristic broad flat (ungrooved) form with 3-3 nail holes and bent-up calkins. The nails evolved from the fiddle key form, still projecting from the shoe and thus, the horse was walking on the nails and not the shoe As a result, only the leading edge of the shoe shows wear. Three nails remaining.