The Thirty Years War devastated Northern Europe, primarily the German states. It was a war of siege and massive destruction fueled by religious fervor. Thousands of castles and tens of thousands of villages were destroyed. In the forefront of siege warfare were the sappers, specialized infantry, whose job it was to undermine and destroy fortifications, primarily castle and city walls. They were attacked directly as well as at distance by musket fire and a variety of projectiles. This helmet served a sapper of the the Thirty Years War, probably a mercenary. It is as remarkable for its construction as for its place in history. The heavy plate, fully 2/10" thick, is skillfully shaped to a ridged one piece skull and finely rolled edge brims with low medial ridges. It is further distinguished by retaining near all of its original pitch covering to the skull and browned finish to the brims.